Objective: The various ranges of viral RNA shedding duration in patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been observed. We aimed to investigate factors associated with prolonged and intermittent viral RNA shedding in a retrospective cohort of 19 patients COVID symptoms.
Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data from a hospital COVID 19 patients from a single center with two breathing consecutive negative results reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were taken from the electronic medical record.
Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was used to assess the effects of clinical characteristics and patterns of shedding duration. plasma levels of immune mediators were measured by using Luminex multiplex microbead-based immunoassay.
Results: There were 201 patients with symptomatic included. The median age was 49 years (interquartile range 16-61), and 52.2% were male. Median RNA shedding was 14 days (IQR 9-18). intermittent shedding was observed in 77 (38.3%). We did not identify factors associated with old or intermittently shedding viral RNA.
The duration of release was inversely related to plasma levels of T-cell cytokines IL-1β and IL-17A in the early stages of infection, and patients have lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during intermittent shedding.
Conclusion: Lack of response of activated T cells in the early stages of infection associated with prolonged shedding of viral RNA, indicating that the initial immune response that is useful for controlling viral load and preventing the viral RNA shedding. intermittent shedding is common and can explain the return detection of viral RNA in patients recover.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cytokines; the immune response; RNA virus shedding.
Enzymatic Protein biopolymer as a Tool for eukaryotic Synthetize Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) with the use of in vaccination, immunotherapy and Nanotechnology
multi-subunit enzyme which biopolymer proteins involved in many cellular processes. Enzymes that make the process of mRNA transcription is RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), which is a multi-subunit enzyme in eukaryotes. This protein biopolymers starts transcription of a particular site and positioned by transcription factors, which form the pre-initiation complex (PIC) in the promoter gene.
To recognize and position RNAPII and transcription factors to the promoter of genes required specific DNA sequence in the promoter of the gene, called a promoter element. They gene promoter elements may vary and for some types of promoters exist, however, it seems that all promoters can use the same pathway for the formation of the PIC.
Those pathways are discussed in this review. In vitro transcribed mRNA can be used as vaccines to fight infectious diseases, for example, in immunotherapy against cancer and in nanotechnology to provide mRNA for the missing protein into the cell. We have outlined the procedure to produce mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV virus-2, which is an agent that causes a pandemic great, COVID-19, affecting people around the world.
Potential advantages of using eukaryotic RNAPII to synthetize large transcripts are described and discussed. In addition, we suggest a method to close the mRNA at the 5 ‘terminal by using the enzyme, which may be more effective than analog cap.
Finally, we suggest that the future development of the multi-talented RNAPII, which will be able to synthetize mRNAs and their hats in the test tube.
Keywords: immunotherapy; mRNA; nanotechnology; protein biopolymers; transcription; vaccine.